Александр (arabskiy_pilot) wrote,
Александр
arabskiy_pilot

ASIANA VERO


asiana-chief

Это Asiana Airlines CEO на пресс конференции по поводу катастрофы их Б777 в Сан-Франциско. Защищает пилотов. Они у нас профессионалы и проч. А что, сейчас, когда на всех каналах только об этом и говорят, можно красиво мозги запудрить, ну а потом, через несколько месяцев, как обычно, когда пыль уляжется и выйдет официальный отчёт, уже у человечества свежее развлекалки будут.
Ну, а раз вы так, то и мы выскажемся. Имеем моральное право, чтобы, хотя бы, сбалансировать вашу пургу.
Что мы имеем на сегодня? ( Естественно, в результате расследования всегда могут всплыть какие-то детали, может даже принципиально меняющие оценку, но, насколько я понимаю что-то в авиации, вероятность этого мне видится ничтожной):
Экипаж заходит на посадку в Сан-Франциско. Шикарный день. Отличная видимость. Почти без ветра. Самый надёжный в мире Б777. Инструментальная система посадки не работает - на профилактике. Ну и бог с ней - в такую-то погоду она вообще профессионалу не нужна. Есть шанс сделать то, что настоящие пилоты всегда любят, что позволяет им после многих часов операторской работы, всё-таки, почувствовать себя летчиками - выполнить визуальный заход на посадку.
Заходят, вроде бы, вначале нормально. Но в последние секунды полёта теряют скорость и.... вам это за последние два дня каждый раз в новостях показывают. И это хорошо ещё они почти всем фюзеляжем бруствер проскочили. Буквально несколько метров ниже и его разорвало бы пополам, со взрывом и попаданием в список самых тяжёлых катастроф в истории авиации.
Тут на всех форумах обсуждают, почему была выключена ILS, что произошло с автоматом тяги, что пилоты устали после 10-ти часового рейса и много еще чего в принципе не имеющего решающего и даже сколько-нибудь серьёзного влияния на исход полёта в этих условиях. А самое главное как-то уходит на второй план: два "профессиональных" пилота с многими годами опыта и тысячами часов налёта банально ПРО.БАЛИ СКОРОСТЬ! Что там ею управляет  - автомат тяги, пилот, аллах или пришельцы из космоса, неважно - ты должен каждые пару секунд на неё смотреть и немедленно действовать, если она сбилась со сценария. Самолёт только и летает благодаря скорости, которая создаёт подъёмную силу. Нет скорости - ты труп. Можно без последствий на какое-то время отвлечься от выдерживания направления и даже высоты, но не смотреть на заходе на скорость - это всё-равно, что не смотреть на дорогу при вождении машины... Неважно, на Цессне ты или Спейсшаттле.

Вот она, кстати - самая левая вертикальная шкала:


B777 PFD

Показывает 171.5 узел (318 км/ч). И много ещё чего на этой шкале полезного: максимальная скорость, минимальная, рекомендованная, тенденция изменения скорости. Залюбуешься! Если смотришь, конечно.

Потерять скорость можно в двух случаях: либо ты на неё не смотришь, либо ты идиот или самоубийца. Второе мы даже не рассматриваем. Значит не смотрели. Оба. Не всё время, конечно, но достаточно, чтобы её потерять. Детская ошибка. Ребёнка посадили во флайт-симулятор. Он тут же и упал.
Ну, а почему не смотрели-то? А отвыкли уже. Дети мадженты (Извините за английский - это надо смотреть в оригинале). Речь идёт о возрастающей зависимости современных пилотов от автоматизации. Пилоту старого Дугласа и в голову бы не пришло глаза от указателя скорости на несколько секунд оторвать.
Есть в этой истории один нюанс, который политкорректные комментаторы обходят стороной - восточная культура. У корейцев в частности очень развито уважение к старшим по возрасту и чину. Из лифта, к примеру, будут выходить согласно статусу в компании. Шоколадными конфетами женщин в офисе угощать - по возрасту и стажу. И т.п. В нашем случае в правом кресле сидел инструктор (кстати, недавно только ставший инструктором), а пилотирующий в левом - только начинающий летать на Б777 и одновременно вводящийся в качестве капитана, пилот, который был для инструктора в университете старшекурсником. То, что между ним, возможно, произошло, просто идиотизмом уже не назовёшь - это чисто корейский культурный момент. Инструктор, заметив уменьшение скорости, не решался сделать замечание уважаемому коллеге, пока не перешёл ту грань, за которой уже было поздно. Звучит сюрреалистично, но это вполне возможно. Или что-то другое подобное. Вот история про то, как второй пилот молча сидел, видя как его убивают. В Корее это более чем развито. После череды катастроф, вызванных в значительной степени отсутствием авиационной культуры и ограничениями на полёты , наложенными авиационными властями США, корейцы попытались что-то сделать в этом отношении, но, видно это настолько в крови...
А так - нормальные пилоты из нормальных компаний исправные самолёты в ясный день сажают мягко на ВПП, и все после этого идут домой...
Вот, кстати, ещё один пример игнорирования скорости. Тоже ещё та компания со своей ещё той культурой.
Возникает вопрос: Нам-то, пассажирам, что делать? Голосовать. Ногами. В сторону касс других компаний. Если, конечно, есть альтернатива.


[Апдэйт 1 - Взгляд изнутри (по англ.)]After I retired from UAL as a Standards Captain on the –400, I got a job as a simulator instructor working for Alteon (a Boeing subsidiary) at Asiana. When I first got there, I was shocked and surprised by the lack of basic piloting skills shown by most of the pilots. It is not a normal situation with normal progression from new hire, right seat, left seat taking a decade or two. One big difference is that ex-Military pilots are given super-seniority and progress to the left seat much faster. Compared to the US, they also upgrade fairly rapidly because of the phenomenal growth by all Asian air carriers. By the way, after about six months at Asiana, I was moved over to KAL and found them to be identical. The only difference was the color of the uniforms and airplanes. I worked in Korea for 5 long years and although I found most of the people to be very pleasant, it’s a minefield of a work environment ... for them and for us expats.

One of the first things I learned was that the pilots kept a web-site and reported on every training session. I don’t think this was officially sanctioned by the company, but after one or two simulator periods, a database was building on me (and everyone else) that told them exactly how I ran the sessions, what to expect on checks, and what to look out for. For example; I used to open an aft cargo door at 100 knots to get them to initiate an RTO and I would brief them on it during the briefing. This was on the B-737 NG and many of the captains were coming off the 777 or B744 and they were used to the Master Caution System being inhibited at 80 kts. Well, for the first few days after I started that, EVERYONE rejected the takeoff. Then, all of a sudden they all “got it” and continued the takeoff (in accordance with their manuals). The word had gotten out. I figured it was an overall PLUS for the training program.

We expat instructors were forced upon them after the amount of fatal accidents (most of the them totally avoidable) over a decade began to be noticed by the outside world. They were basically given an ultimatum by the FAA, Transport Canada, and the EU to totally rebuild and rethink their training program or face being banned from the skies all over the world. They hired Boeing and Airbus to staff the training centers. KAL has one center and Asiana has another. When I was there (2003-2008) we had about 60 expats conducting training KAL and about 40 at Asiana. Most instructors were from the USA, Canada, Australia, or New Zealand with a few stuffed in from Europe and Asia. Boeing also operated training centers in Singapore and China so they did hire some instructors from there.

This solution has only been partially successful but still faces ingrained resistance from the Koreans. I lost track of the number of highly qualified instructors I worked with who were fired because they tried to enforce “normal” standards of performance. By normal standards, I would include being able to master basic tasks like successfully shoot a visual approach with 10 kt crosswind and the weather CAVOK.  I am not kidding when I tell you that requiring them to shoot a visual approach struck fear in their hearts ... with good reason.  Like this Asiana crew, it didnt’ compute that you needed to be a 1000’ AGL at 3 miles and your sink rate should be 600-800 Ft/Min. But, after 5 years, they finally nailed me. I still had to sign my name to their training and sometimes if I just couldn’t pass someone on a check, I had no choice but to fail them. I usually busted about 3-5 crews a year and the resistance against me built. I finally failed an extremely incompetent crew and it turned out he was the a high-ranking captain who was the Chief Line Check pilot on the fleet I was teaching on. I found out on my next monthly trip home that KAL was not going to renew my Visa. The crew I failed was given another check and continued a fly while talking about how unfair Captain Brown was.

Any of you Boeing glass-cockpit guys will know what I mean when I describe these events. I gave them a VOR approach with an 15 mile arc from the IAF. By the way, KAL dictated the profiles for all sessions and we just administered them. He requested two turns in holding at the IAF to get set up for the approach.  When he finally got his nerve up, he requested “Radar Vectors” to final. He could have just said he was ready for the approach and I would have cleared him to the IAF and then “Cleared for the approach” and he could have selected “Exit Hold” and been on his way. He was already in LNAV/VNAV PATH. So, I gave him vectors to final with a 30 degree intercept. Of course, he failed to “Extend the FAF” and he couldn’t understand why it would not intercept the LNAV magenta line when he punched LNAV and VNAV. He made three approaches and missed approaches before he figured out that his active waypoint was “Hold at XYZ.”  Every time he punched LNAV, it would try to go back to the IAF ... just like it was supposed to do. Since it was a check, I was not allowed (by their own rules) to offer him any help. That was just one of about half dozen major errors I documented in his UNSAT paperwork. He also failed to put in ANY aileron on takeoff with a 30-knot direct crosswind (again, the weather was dictated by KAL).

This Asiana SFO accident makes me sick and while I am surprised there are not more, I expect that there will be many more of the same type accidents in the future unless some drastic steps are taken. They are already required to hire a certain percentage of expats to try to ingrain more flying expertise in them, but more likely, they will eventually be fired too. One of the best trainees I ever had was a Korean/American (he grew up and went to school in the USA) who flew C-141’s in the USAF. When he got out, he moved back to Korea and got hired by KAL. I met him when I gave him some training and a check on the B-737 and of course, he breezed through the training. I give him annual PCs for a few years and he was always a good pilot. Then, he got involved with trying to start a pilots union and when they tired to enforce some sort of duty rigs on international flights, he was fired after being arrested and JAILED!

The Koreans are very very bright and smart so I was puzzled by their inability to fly an airplane well. They would show up on Day 1 of training (an hour before the scheduled briefing time, in a 3-piece suit, and shined shoes) with the entire contents of the FCOM and Flight Manual totally memorized. But, putting that information to actual use was many times impossible. Crosswind landings are also an unsolvable puzzle for most of them. I never did figure it out completely, but I think I did uncover a few clues. Here is my best guess. First off, their educational system emphasizes ROTE memorization from the first day of school as little kids. As you know, that is the lowest form of learning and they act like robots. They are also taught to NEVER challenge authority and in spite of the flight training heavily emphasizing CRM/CLR, it still exists either on the surface or very subtly. You just can’t change 3000 years of culture.

The other thing that I think plays an important role is the fact that there is virtually NO civil aircraft flying in Korea. It’s actually illegal to own a Cessna-152 and just go learn to fly. Ultra-lights and Powered Hang Gliders are Ok. I guess they don’t trust the people to not start WW III by flying 35 miles north of Inchon into North Korea.  But, they don’t get the kids who grew up flying (and thinking for themselves) and hanging around airports. They do recruit some kids from college and send then to the US or Australia and get them their tickets. Generally, I had better experience with them than with the ex-Military pilots. This was a surprise to me as I spent years as a Naval Aviator flying fighters after getting my private in light airplanes. I would get experienced F-4, F-5, F-15, and F-16 pilots who were actually terrible pilots if they had to hand fly the airplane. What a shock!

Finally, I’ll get off my box and talk about the total flight hours they claim. I do accept that there are a few talented and free-thinking pilots that I met and trained in Korea. Some are still in contact and I consider them friends. They were a joy! But, they were few and far between and certainly not the norm.

Actually, this is a worldwide problem involving automation and the auto-flight concept. Take one of these new first officers that got his ratings in the US or Australia and came to KAL or Asiana with 225 flight hours. After takeoff, in accordance with their SOP, he calls for the autopilot to be engaged at 250’ after takeoff. How much actual flight time is that? Hardly one minute. Then he might fly for hours on the autopilot and finally disengage it (MAYBE?) below 800’ after the gear was down, flaps extended and on airspeed (autothrottle). Then he might bring it in to land. Again, how much real “flight time” or real experience did he get. Minutes! Of course, on the 777 or 747, it’s the same only they get more inflated logbooks.

So, when I hear that a 10,000 hour Korean captain was vectored in for a 17-mile final and cleared for a visual approach in CAVOK weather, it raises the hair on the back of my neck.

Tom




Tags: asiana, дети мадженты, культурные особенности
Subscribe
  • Post a new comment

    Error

    default userpic

    Your reply will be screened

    Your IP address will be recorded 

    When you submit the form an invisible reCAPTCHA check will be performed.
    You must follow the Privacy Policy and Google Terms of use.
  • 228 comments
Previous
← Ctrl ← Alt
Next
Ctrl → Alt →
Previous
← Ctrl ← Alt
Next
Ctrl → Alt →